A 2022 paper theorizes that elevated histamine is involved in many vaccine adverse events, including SARS-CoV-2 vaccine reactions.
The author breaks down the VAERS adverse events for vaccination into the top 75 reported events. Most of the VAERS adverse events are for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
The list of symptoms that overlap with histamine intolerance is long and includes:
- Respiratory: rhinorrhea, rhinitis, sneezing, swelling of lips, tongue, glottis, the lining of the nose
- Gastrointestinal: bloating, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea
- Neurological: headache/migraine, faintness, vertigo, anxiety and a feeling of impending doom, dizziness, syncope, insomnia
- Cardiovascular: tachycardia, inappropriate fatigue, changes in blood pressure, heart rhythm disorders, chest pain
- Skin: itching, flushing, hives, dermatitis, swelling
The hypothesis posited was: “Innate immune responses to vaccines include activation of mast cells to release histamine ,. Based on symptoms associated with elevated histamine levels, see Table 2, this article proposes the hypothesis that innate immune response to vaccination release histamine to elevated levels that are causative for the majority of vaccine reactogenicity adverse events. Multiple vaccine reactogenicity adverse events parallel those of histamine intolerance syndrome, see Table 1. A rapid increase in histamine from innate immune responses to vaccination may exceed the histamine tolerance level for many vaccines with low to normal histamine tolerance. The number of vaccinees with adverse reactions is proposed to increase corresponding to the reactogenicity level of the vaccine”.
Ricke, Darrell O. “Etiology Model for Many Vaccination Adverse Reactions, Including SARS-CoV-2 Spike Vaccines.” AIMS Allergy and Immunology, vol. 6, no. 4, 2022, pp. 200–15. www.aimspress.com, https://doi.org/10.3934/Allergy.2022015.