A new study in Frontiers in Public Health caught my eye: Physio-metabolic and clinical consequences of wearing face masks—Systematic review with meta-analysis and comprehensive evaluation
The meta-analysis study looked at adverse events of medical masks (surgical and N95). The results of 37 studies were combined, and the results showed that wearing a mask decreased blood oxygen (SpO2) and increased blood-CO2 — not surprising. Other effects included statistically significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, and humidity (and acne).
What is different about this paper is that it proposes the idea of “mask-induced exhaustion-syndrome” (MIES), which it claims is the downstream physiological and metabolic dysfunction induced by the long-term decreased blood oxygen and increased blood-CO2.
How does this relate to long spike?
The authors of the study state: “So far, several mask related symptoms may have been misinterpreted as long COVID-19 symptoms.”
Perhaps. Or perhaps an additional factor for people who struggle with health issues after Covid/vaccine?
Essentially, the authors present the idea that the continuous rebreathing from the dead space volume of the mask and the resistance to breathing with the mask causes a shift in the hemoglobin–O2 saturation curve. Long-term mask use, such as all-day use in the workplace, will eventually cause oxidative stress due to hypoxia. Increased oxidative stress due to hypoxia inhibits cell-mediated immune response and ultimately immunosuppression. The transient hypoxia also increases HIF-1a (hypoxia inducible factor-1a).
You can read the whole study for yourself and see what you think. My first thought was that wearing an N-95 mask all day could be similar to having sleep apnea, with all the downstream health effects there.[ref]
Here’s the link to the study again:
Physio-metabolic and clinical consequences of wearing face masks—Systematic review with meta-analysis and comprehensive evaluation
If you want to learn more about HIF-1a:
HIF-1a: Hypoxia, Cancer, and Athletic Superpowers
Brain Fog: Causes, genetics, and individualized solutions