mRNA spike circulation
The mRNA vaccines were designed and marketed as staying in the deltoid muscle where they were injected.
Research shows us that this may not hold true for everyone.
A July 2022 paper in Cell Trends in Molecular Medicine examined the distribution of the spike protein after vaccination.
The researchers found lipid nanoparticles likely travel through the body and are distributed in many tissues and organs. Additionally, the researchers concluded that the mRNA spike protein and the lipid nanoparticles could cause inflammation in those tissues.
Here’s a visual from the paper on how the mRNA lipid nanoparticles are brought into the cell, make the spike protein, display the spike on the cell surface, and also release it in exosomes.
The shed spike proteins may bind to the ACE2 receptors (or other receptors) on cells throughout the body.
The endothelium is the lining of the blood vessels. Circulating lipid nanoparticles and circulating spike protein may be able to bind to the ACE2 receptors on endothelial cells, potentially causing the immune system to target the endothelium.
Trougakos, Ioannis P., et al. “Adverse Effects of COVID-19 MRNA Vaccines: The Spike Hypothesis.” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 28, no. 7, July 2022, pp. 542–54. www.cell.com, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2022.04.007.